1. **Understand Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors**: Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are properties of square matrices. Given a square matrix \( A \), an eigenvector \( \mathbf{v} \) and its corresponding eigenvalue \( \lambda \) satisfy the equation \( A\mathbf{v} = \lambda\mathbf{v} \).

2. **Find Eigenvalues**: Start by finding the eigenvalues of the matrix \( A \). To do this, solve the characteristic equation:

\[ \text{det}(A - \lambda I) = 0 \]

where \( \lambda \) is the eigenvalue, \( A \) is the matrix, and \( I \) is the identity matrix of the same size as \( A \). This equation will yield one or more eigenvalues.

3. **Find Eigenvectors**: For each eigenvalue \( \lambda \), find the corresponding eigenvectors by solving the equation \( (A - \lambda I)\mathbf{v} = \mathbf{0} \), where \( \mathbf{v} \) is the eigenvector associated with \( \lambda \).

- For each eigenvalue, set up the system of equations \( (A - \lambda I)\mathbf{v} = \mathbf{0} \), where \( \mathbf{v} \) is the vector of variables representing the eigenvector.

- Solve this system of equations using methods such as Gaussian elimination or matrix inversion to find the eigenvector(s) corresponding to each eigenvalue.

4. **Normalize Eigenvectors (Optional)**: Optionally, you may want to normalize the eigenvectors, which involves dividing each component of the eigenvector by its magnitude to ensure that it has unit length.

5. **Verify Eigenvectors**: Once you have found the eigenvectors, you can verify that they satisfy the equation \( A\mathbf{v} = \lambda\mathbf{v} \) for each eigenvalue \( \lambda \) by multiplying the matrix \( A \) by the eigenvectors and comparing the result to \( \lambda\mathbf{v} \).

It's important to note that finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be computationally intensive, especially for large matrices. In practice, numerical methods and software packages are often used to compute eigenvalues and eigenvectors efficiently.